Glossary

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  • b

  • Best-of-Breed
    The best product in a given category. The terminology is likely borrowed from animal shows whereby a particular breed of dog would have multiple contenders to win a prize. Similar to the animal kingdom, technology also has categories: ERP, CRM, CMS, etc. When a tool is considered to be the(...) - Read More
  • Business Capability
    A business capability is what a business either does or can do. The focus is on the "what" and not the "how." Capabilities mapping is a crucial part of business modeling, because it allows strategists and leaders to focus on what the company should be doing before dwelling on the "how."(...) - Read More
  • Business Process
    While a business capability is focused on what should be done, then a business process focuses on how it should be done. For example: marketing management is a capability, which will have multiple business processes such as lead-scoping, which details exactly how a lead is scored, the scoring(...) - Read More
  • c

  • CASB
    Cloud access security broker. A security-focused application which monitors and/or actively protects cloud solutions. CASBs typically provide data loss prevention (DLP), configuration monitoring, and suspicious activity detection. - Read More
  • CDP
    Customer data platform. A data solution that stores multiple dimensions of customer data, typically sourced from multiple systems such as CRM, website trackers, and customer support tools. The data is extracted, transformed, and optionally enriched. It's then stored within a centralized(...) - Read More
  • COTS
    Common, off the self software. A term used to denote that software is a commodity solution, provided by vendor, and typically sold to more than one customer. As a commodity solution, COTS is the opposite of custom-developed software. - Read More
  • CRM
    Customer relationship management. Examples include Adobe Marketo, Hubspot, and Salesforce Sales Cloud. CRM systems have been around for many years, and traditionally house a hierarchical collection of accounts (which typically represent organizations), contacts within those accounts,(...) - Read More
  • Customer 360
    A customer 360 is a comprehensive (or "full circle," and hence 360-degree) view of the customer. A "customers" is typically an account, which represents a company, and that company will have multiple employees, opportunities, and potentially products associated with it. The data that makes up(...) - Read More
  • d

  • DLP
    Data loss prevention. Tools and processes which detect and/or prevent sensitive data from leaking from the organization; either accidentally or intentionally. Sensitive information may be personally identifiable information, proprietary intellectual property, or other generally non-public(...) - Read More
  • DMP
    Data management platform. Not to be confused with a CRM or CDP, a DMP is typically used in conjunction with an advertising demand side platform (DSP). Put simply, a DMP is a key-value store used to associate anonymous IDs with audiences. If we assume CNN.COM has a DSP and DMP, you may be(...) - Read More
  • e

  • EAM
    Enterprise architecture management. Used by enterprise architects, these tools holistically manage enterprise artifacts such as software, business capabilities, processes, and vendors as portfolios. - Read More
  • EAM
    Enterprise architecture management. The tools, processes, and ultimately capability of managing the architecture of the enterprise itself. Common capabilities include application portfolio management, capability mapping, and demand forecasting. EAM processes include design reviews and(...) - Read More
  • ELT
    Extract, load, transform, An alternative approach to traditional ELT whereby data is first loaded into the target database, then transformed. This essentially shifts the transformation duties from the middleware to the database infrastructure itself. - Read More
  • ESM
    Enterprise service management. ESM is the framework used to manage service requests, incidents, and other processes across multiple internal departments. An example of mature ESM in action is when an employee sends an email to payroll, asking why her paycheck seems inaccurate. An ESM system(...) - Read More
  • ESP
    Email service provider. A staple of any martech stack, an ESP is a bulk email tool capable of running large-scale email campaigns for marketing and PR teams. Beyond being able to send to millions of recipients, ESPs provide advanced tracking analytics, A/B testing, and many other advanced(...) - Read More
  • ETL
    Extract, transform, load. Three sequential processes used to pull (extract) data from a source system, transform the data (such as merging fields, creating calculations, etc) and finally loading the data into a target data store. See ELT for an alternative approach. - Read More
  • g

  • GRC
    Governance, risk and compliance. A set of tools and processes used to methodically measure, track and monitor risk management in an enterprise setting. - Read More
  • h

  • H2R
    Hire to retire. The overarching enterprise process and all of its sub-processes related to hiring and retiring an employee, contractor, or consultant. A common set of sequences may include recruiting, applicant tracking, onboarding into multiple systems, role changes, name changes (in the(...) - Read More
  • i

  • I2O
    Idea to offering. An enterprise process which details how products and services are launched. This includes product inception (idea), to product development, to sales and marketing (offering). - Read More
  • iPaaS
    Integration platform as a service. In iPaaS is low-code and/or no-code environment which simplifies data integration between systems; be them on-premises or SaaS-based. Unlike custom-developed data engineering platforms, iPaaS solutions lower the barrier to entry with data integration and(...) - Read More
  • m

  • MSA
    Master services agreement. Most business relationships involve one or more contracts, typically delivered in the form of an . While SOWs cover contract specifics, an MSA is an overarching set of general language. For example, a long-term business(...) - Read More
  • n

  • NPI
    New product introduction. A subprocess of I2O focused on the latter stages of product introduction, specifically bringing new products to market. - Read More
  • NPS
    Net Promoter Score. A common metric used to gauge customer satisfaction or loyalty with a company. NPS questionnaires are intentionally minimal, and use an ordinal numeric range of -100 (lowest score) to +100 (highest score). Other similar test metrics have been derived from NPS, such as(...) - Read More
  • o

  • O2C
    Order to cash. The overarching enterprise process and of its sub-processes which captures the activities associated with fulfilling a customer order. A high-level set of O2C sub-processes would include lead generation, sales opportunity management, contract management, account onboarding,(...) - Read More
  • OKR
    Objectives and Key Results. OKRs are a component of an overall enterprise performance management (EPM) program. Objectives are qualitative goals, and key results are quantitative measures of success. OKRs are strategic in nature and should be created in sparing manner. An organization should(...) - Read More
  • p

  • P2P
    Procure to pay. The overarching enterprise process and of its sub-processes which captures the activities associated with internal ordering of goods and services. Procurement itself may have multiple sub-processes, such as an approval workflow, the creation of a purchase order, and so on.(...) - Read More
  • PII
    Personally identifiable information. Typically protected by privacy laws, PII is any information that can be used to identify, locate, or contact an individual. - Read More
  • q

  • QBR
    Quarterly business review. A periodic review of business metrics, typically focused by department. For example a sales QBR will cover insights and metrics around deals won vs lost, contracts renewed, churn, and other sales-centric metrics of interest. Alternatively, an information technology(...) - Read More
  • r

  • R2R
    Record to report. Every month, quarter, and year-end, finance teams must "close the books" and officially report on revenue to internal stakeholders, and for public companies, external shareholders as well. The end-to-end processes associated with processing all period-related transactions,(...) - Read More
  • Reference architecture
    A reference architecture is a high-level design, typical void of vendor-specific solutions. The goal is to convey the general solution approach, aligned with best practices, while intentionally omitting implementation details. For example: a business team may need a data warehouse. A solution(...) - Read More
  • s

  • SAM
    Software asset management. A general term used to refer to managing software assets, both on-prem and in the cloud. - Read More
  • SOW
    Scope of work. A SOW (sometimes pronounced "sau-w") is a legal contract that outlines the worked to be performed by a service provider such as a contractor, consultant, or software-as-a-service company. One or more SOWs are typically created under a single MSA. - Read More
  • t

  • TMS
    Tag management system. Also known as "tag managers." Modern websites tend to load multiple JavaScript routines. Some scripts load from the site itself ("first-party" locations) and others from remote sites ("third-party" locations). Having to alter code every time a script needs to be added(...) - Read More